Articles

Recent Submissions

  • Metsola, Lalli (2019)
  • Pavlović, Edi; Norbert Gratzl (2019)
  • Ratilainen, Saara Maria (Lexington Books, 2016)
    Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European Politics
  • Ratilainen, Saara Maria (Routledge, 2019)
  • Hellman, Matilda (2019)
  • Ratilainen, Saara (2014)
  • Ratilainen, Saara (2018)
    Focusing on online magazines, this article sheds light on Russian cultural institutions from the perspective of digital media. My analysis concentrates on urban lifestyle magazines, a sub-category of consumer magazines and a media genre, which emerged in Russia in the glossy magazine format and is now experiencing a powerful second rising' on the internet. My article asks how the adaptation to the digital communication environment by lifestyle publications re-defines the very concept of a magazine and reorganizes the institutional ties between media and cultural industries. This focus enables me to analyse lifestyle magazines as a dynamic field of interaction in which cultural meanings are produced and negotiated. Based on new media studies, I see the cultural transcoding (Manovich 2002) of the networked and automatized information transmission into the magazines' content as being a significant factor in the development of contemporary culture and media. Ultimately, my article introduces an attempt to analyse new media titles combining qualitative media analysis with the developing theory of algorithmic culture' (Striphas 2015). My argumentation is based on two case publications: Afisha, established in 1999 as a weekly glossy magazine introducing all cultural events in Moscow, and Inde, a digital-born regional lifestyle magazine focusing on urban culture in the Republic of Tatarstan. Urban lifestyle magazines are important for the institutional organization of Russian culture, as they direct their readers' attention to a broad selection of arts, products and events; strengthen the link between consumers and cultural entrepreneurs and build on a long tradition of print journalism, thereby transmitting the values of reading and literacy to a popular public. Moreover, my analysis shows that, through their multi-platform publication strategy, online magazines (re)organize as aggregates of digital resources helping to manage cultural decision-making in a consumerist setting.
  • Marquardt, Nicole; Kekalainen, Eliisa; Chen, Puran; Lourda, Magda; Wilson, Jennifer N.; Scharenberg, Marlena; Bergman, Per; Al-Ameri, Mamdoh; Hard, Joanna; Mold, Jeffrey E.; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Michaelsson, Jakob (2019)
    Human lung tissue-resident NK cells (trNK cells) are likely to play an important role in host responses towards viral infections, inflammatory conditions and cancer. However, detailed insights into these cells are still largely lacking. Here we show, using RNA sequencing and flow cytometry-based analyses, that subsets of human lung CD69(-)CD16(-) NK cells display hallmarks of tissue-residency, including high expression of CD49a, CD103, and ZNF683, and reduced expression of SELL, S1PR5, and KLF2/3. CD49a(+)CD16(-) NK cells are functionally competent, and produce IFN-gamma, TNF, MIP-1 beta, and GM-CSF. After stimulation with IL-15, they upregulate perforin, granzyme B, and Ki67 to a similar degree as CD49a(-) CD16(-) NK cells. Comparing datasets from trNK cells in human lung and bone marrow with tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells identifies core genes co-regulated either by tissue-residency, cell-type or location. Together, our data indicate that human lung trNK cells have distinct features, likely regulating their function in barrier immunity.
  • Kohl, Lukas; Koskinen, Markku; Rissanen, Kaisa; Haikarainen, Iikka; Polvinen, Tatu Hannu; Hellén, Heidi; Pihlatie, Mari (2019)
    Studies that quantify plant methane (CH4) emission rely on the accurate measurement of small changes in the mixing ratio of CH4 that coincide with much larger changes in the mixing ratio of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we assessed whether 11 commonly occurring VOCs (e.g. methanol, α- and β-pinene, Δ3-carene) interfered with the quantitation of CH4 by five laser-absorption spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) based CH4 analysers, and quantified the interference of seven compounds on three instruments. Our results showed minimal interference with laser-based analysers and underlined the importance of identifying and compensating for interferences with FTIR instruments. When VOCs were not included in the spectral library, they exerted a strong bias on FTIR-based instruments (64–1800 ppbv apparent CH4 ppmv−1 VOC). Minor (0.7–126 ppbv ppmv−1) interference with FTIR-based measurements were also detected when the spectrum of the interfering VOC was included in the library. In contrast, we detected only minor (<20 ppbv ppmv−1) and transient (< 1 min) VOC interferences on laser-absorption spectroscopy-based analysers. Overall, our results demonstrate that VOC interferences have only minor effects on CH4 flux measurements in soil chambers, but may severely impact stem and shoot flux measurements. Laser-absorption-based instruments are better suited for quantifying CH4 fluxes from plant leaves and stems than FTIR-based instruments; however, significant interferences in shoot chamber measurements could not be excluded for any of the tested instruments. Our results furthermore showed that FTIR can precisely quantify VOC mixing ratios and could therefore provide a method complementary to proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).
  • Charitsis, Vassilis; Fyrberg Yngfalk, Anna; Skålén, Per (2019)
    While previous critical marketing research on co-creation has focused on how consumers’ cognitive and social abilities are governed, this paper focuses on how firms’ marketing strategies attempt to govern every aspect of consumers’ lives. By drawing on both a bio-political framework and a study of Nike+, a marketing system for runners which Nike has developed around its self-tracking devices, three biopolitical marketing dimensions were identified; the gamification of the running experience, the transformation of running into a competitive activity, and the conversion of running into a social activity. In identifying these marketing dimensions, the study demonstrates how self-tracking affordances are deployed in the development of a biopolitical marketing environment that tames captures and appropriates value from different aspects of consumers’ lives, including –and combining - their social behaviours, cognitive capacities and bodily conducts. This paper contributes to critical studies of value co-creation by focusing on the tamed self-tracking body as a resource for value creation, but also by demonstrating that consumers engage, through cognitive labour, in the production of the biopolitical environment that leads to their exploitation.
  • Saeed, Sahrai; Gerdts, Eva; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Sinisalo, Juha; Putaala, Jukka (2019)
    Background: The incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients is increasing and associated with unfavorable prognosis due to high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. In many young patients the cause of stroke remains unknown, referred to as cryptogenic stroke. Neuroimaging frequently suggests a proximal source of embolism in these strokes. We developed a comprehensive step-by-step echocardiography protocol for a prospective study with centralized reading to characterize preclinical cardiac changes associated with cryptogenic stroke. Methods and study design: SECRETO (Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome; NCT01934725) is an ongoing multicenter case-control study enrolling patients (target n = 600) aged 18-49 years hospitalized due to first-ever ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology and age- and sex-matched controls (target n = 600). A comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors and extensive cardiac imaging with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, electrocardiography and neurovascular imaging is performed. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms will be centrally read, following an extensive protocol particularly emphasizing the characteristics of left atrium, left atrial appendage and interatrial septum. Conclusions: A detailed assessment of both conventional and unconventional vascular risk factors and cardiac imaging with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are implemented in SECRETO, aiming to establish indirect and direct risk factors and causes for cryptogenic stroke and novel pathophysiological brain-heart pathways. This may ultimately enable more personalized therapeutic options for these patients.
  • Vantola, Renne; Luoma, Emilia; Lehikoinen, Annukka (European Union, 2018)
  • Tiihonen, Jari; Koskuvi, Marja; Storvik, Markus; Hyotylainen, Ida; Gao, Yanyan; Puttonen, Katja A.; Giniatullina, Raisa; Poguzhelskaya, Ekaterina; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Vaurio, Olli; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Therman, Sebastian; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kaprio, Jaakko; Cheng, Lesley; Hill, Andrew F.; Lahteenvuo, Markku; Tohka, Jussi; Giniatullin, Rashid; Lehtonen, Sarka; Koistinaho, Jari (2019)
    It has remained unclear why schizophrenia typically manifests after adolescence and which neurobiological mechanisms are underlying the cascade leading to the actual onset of the illness. Here we show that the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons of monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for schizophrenia enhances disease-specific signal by minimizing genetic heterogeneity. In proteomic and pathway analyses, clinical illness is associated especially with altered glycosaminoglycan, GABAergic synapse, sialylation, and purine metabolism pathways. Although only 12% of all 19,462 genes are expressed differentially between healthy males and females, up to 61% of the illness-related genes are sex specific. These results on sex-specific genes are replicated in another dataset. This implies that the pathophysiology differs between males and females, and may explain why symptoms appear after adolescence when the expression of many sex-specific genes change, and suggests the need for sex-specific treatments.
  • Liu, Xueping; Helenius, Dorte; Skotte, Line; Beaumont, Robin N.; Wielscher, Matthias; Geller, Frank; Juodakis, Julius; Mahajan, Anubha; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Lin, Frederick Tj; Vogelezang, Suzanne; Bustamante, Mariona; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Pitkanen, Niina; Wang, Carol A.; Bacelis, Jonas; Borges, Maria C.; Zhang, Ge; Bedell, Bruce A.; Rossi, Robert M.; Skogstrand, Kristin; Peng, Shouneng; Thompson, Wesley K.; Appadurai, Vivek; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kalliala, Ilkka; Power, Christine; McCarthy, Mark; Boyd, Heather A.; Marazita, Mary L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Scholtens, Denise M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Vinding, Rebecca K.; Bisgaard, Hans; Knight, Bridget A.; Pahkala, Katja; Raitakari, Olli; Helgeland, Oyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Njolstad, Pal R.; Fadista, Joao; Schork, Andrew J.; Nudel, Ron; Miller, Daniel E.; Chen, Xiaoting; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Borglum, Anders D.; Nordentoft, Merete; Mors, Ole; Hao, Ke; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Hougaard, David M.; Kottyan, Leah C.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Vrijheid, Martine; Felix, Janine F.; Lowe, William L.; Grant, Struan Fa; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Muglia, Louis J.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Werge, Thomas M.; Melbye, Mads; Buil, Alfonso; Feenstra, Bjarke (2019)
    The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P= 3.96 x 10(-14)). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni; Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira (2019)
    Background: A large body of earlier research has focused on studying children’s self-regulation (SR) skills and frustration with different methods. However, considerably less attention has been given to hearing children’s own voice. The current study sought to demonstrate children’s own comprehension and highlight it as a valuable and unique tendency to fill the scientific gap in the research area. Aim: This research aimed to contribute the empirical understanding of how SR, as mental ability, supported children’s coping strategies and comprehensions which they will possibly use in a hypothetical frustrated context in the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) environment. Setting: Self-regulation and strategies in a frustrating context were studied with mixed methods in a sample (n = 383) of 48–87-month-old children in Finland. Self-regulation was assessed by their own teachers with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied by interview where the children’s open-ended descriptions provided the strategies told by themselves. Methods: The study’s was conducted by using mixed methods. Two independent instruments to measure SR and strategies for frustration were used. Self-regulation was assessed by teacher with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied via child interview. Results: Good SR skills were related to persistent coping strategies and not giving up in a simulated situation. Weak SR skills related more with uncertain or withdrawal coping strategies, like giving up, or abandoning the situation. Conclusion: Self-regulation skills have an important role in guiding children with their use and narration of suitable coping strategies on overcoming the frustration effectively. The concrete strategies would allow teachers to work concretely with children in enhancing their SR skills and coping strategies further.Keywords: self-regulation skills; frustration; conflict; coping strategies; early childhood; interview.
  • Inkinen, Nina; Pettilä, Ville; Lakkisto, Päivi; Kuitunen, Anne; Jukarainen, Sakari; Bendel, Stepani; Inkinen, Outi; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Vaara, Suvi T (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
    Abstract Background Injury to endothelium and glycocalyx predisposes to vascular leak, which may subsequently lead to increased fluid requirements and worse outcomes. In this post hoc study of the prospective multicenter observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) cohort study conducted in 17 Finnish intensive care units, we studied the association of Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), Angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with fluid administration and balance among septic critical care patients and their association with development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and 90-day mortality. Results SDC-1, Ang-2, sTM, VAP-1 and IL-6 levels were measured at ICU admission from 619 patients with sepsis. VAP-1 decreased (p < 0.001) and IL-6 increased (p < 0.001) with increasing amounts of administered fluid, but other biomarkers did not show differences according to fluid administration. In linear regression models adjusted for IL-6, only VAP-1 was significantly associated with fluid administration on day 1 (p < 0.001) and the cumulative fluid balance on day 5/ICU discharge (p = 0.001). Of 415 patients admitted without AKI, altogether 112 patients (27.0%) developed AKI > 12 h from ICU admission (AKI>12 h). They had higher sTM levels than patients without AKI, and after multivariable adjustment log, sTM level was associated with AKI>12 h with OR (95% CI) of 12.71 (2.96–54.67), p = 0.001). Ninety-day non-survivors (n = 180; 29.1%) had higher SDC-1 and sTM levels compared to survivors. After adjustment for known confounders, log SDC-1 (OR [95% CI] 2.13 [1.31–3.49], p = 0.002), log sTM (OR [95% CI] 7.35 [2.29–23.57], p < 0.001), and log Ang-2 (OR [95% CI] 2.47 [1.44–4.14], p = 0.001) associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality. Finally, patients who had high levels of all three markers, namely, SDC-1, Ang-2 and sTM, had an adjusted OR of 5.61 (95% CI 2.67–11.79; p < 0.001) for 90-day mortality. Conclusions VAP-1 and IL-6 associated with fluid administration on the first ICU day. After adjusting for confounders, sTM was associated with development of AKI after 12 h from ICU admission. SDC-1, Ang-2 and sTM were independently associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality.
  • Ziemele, Inga; Xu, Man; Vilmane, Anda; Rasa-Dzelzkaleja, Santa; Hedman, Lea; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra; Gardovska, Dace (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Human bocavirus 1 is a commonly detected human parvovirus. Many studies have shown human bocavirus 1 as a pathogen in association with acute respiratory tract infections in children. However, because human bocavirus 1 persists in the upper airways for extensive time periods after acute infection, the definition and diagnostics of acute human bocavirus 1 infection is challenging. Until now, detection of human bocavirus 1 exclusively, high viral load in respiratory samples, and viremia have been associated with a clinical picture of acute respiratory illness. There are no studies showing detection of human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a diagnostic marker for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Case presentation We report the case of a 17-month-old Latvian boy who presented in intensive care unit with acute bilateral bronchiolitis, with a history of rhinorrhea and cough for 6 days and fever for the last 2 days prior to admission, followed by severe respiratory distress and tracheal intubation. Human bocavirus 1 was the only respiratory virus detected by a qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel. For the diagnosis of acute human bocavirus 1 infection, both molecular and serological approaches were used. Human bocavirus 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected simultaneously in nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool, and blood, as well as in the corresponding cell-free blood plasma by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, revealing high DNA-copy numbers in nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool. Despite a low-load viremia, human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid was found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For detection of human bocavirus 1-specific antibodies, non-competitive immunoglobulin M and competitive immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassays were used. The plasma was positive for both human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies. Conclusions The presence of human bocavirus 1 genomic DNA in blood plasma and human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M are markers of acute human bocavirus 1 infection that may cause life-threatening acute bronchiolitis.
  • Glerup, Mia; Thiel, Steffen; Rypdal, Veronika; Arnstad, Ellen D; Ekelund, Maria; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Aalto, Kristiina; Rygg, Marite; Nielsen, Susan; Fasth, Anders; Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Herlin, Troels (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background To determine the serum levels of the lectin pathway proteins early in the disease course and 17 years after disease onset and to correlate the protein levels to markers of disease activity in participants from a population-based Nordic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) cohort. Additionally, to assess the predictive value of lectin pathway proteins with respect to remission status. Methods A population-based cohort study of consecutive cases of JIA with a disease onset from 1997 to 2000 from defined geographical areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark with 17 years of follow-up was performed. Clinical characteristics were registered and H-ficolin, M-ficolin, MASP-1, MASP-3, MBL and CL-K1 levels in serum were analyzed. Results In total, 293 patients with JIA were included (mean age 23.7 ± 4.4 years; mean follow-up 17.2 ± 1.7 years). Concentrations of the lectin protein levels in serum were higher at baseline compared to the levels 17 years after disease onset (p ≤ 0.006, n = 164). At baseline, the highest level of M-ficolin was observed in systemic JIA. Further, high M-ficolin levels at baseline and at 17-year follow-up were correlated to high levels of ESR. In contrast, high MASP-1 and MASP-3 tended to correlate to low ESR. CL-K1 showed a negative correlation to JADAS71 at baseline. None of the protein levels had prognostic abilities for remission status 17 years after disease onset. Conclusion We hypothesize that increased serum M-ficolin levels are associated with higher disease activity in JIA and further, the results indicate that MASP-1, MASP-3 and CL-K1 are markers of inflammation.
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p < 0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p < 0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Craigie, Samantha; Schünemann, Holger J.; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2018)
    Objectives: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rating certainty of evidence includes five domains of reasons for rating down certainty. Only one of these, precision, is easily amenable through the confidence interval to quantitation. The other four (risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, and publication bias) are not. Nevertheless, conceptually, one could consider a quantified "certainty range" within which the true effect lies. The certainty range would be at least as wide as the confidence interval and would expand with each additional reason for uncertainty. Study Design and Setting: We have applied this concept to rating the certainty of evidence in the baseline risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding in patients undergoing urological surgery. We considered rating up moderate or low quality evidence when the net benefit of VTE prophylaxis was unequivocally positive, that is, when the smallest plausible value of VTE reduction was greater than the largest plausible value of increased bleeding. To establish whether the net benefit was unequivocally positive, we expanded the range of plausible values by 20% for each of the four nonquantitative domains in which there were serious limitations. Results: We present how we applied these methods to examples of open radical cystectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. In high-VTE risk laparoscopic partial nephrectomy patients and high-and medium-VTE risk open radical cystectomy patients, results proved robust to expanded certainty intervals, justifying rating up quality of evidence. In low -risk patients, the results were not robust, and rating up was therefore not appropriate. Conclusion: This work represents the first empirical application in a decision -making context of the previously suggested concept of certainty ranges and should stimulate further exploration of the associated theoretical and practical issues. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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