Recent Submissions

  • Heasman, Lia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Striving for profitable business is not against the foundations of human rights, because profitability itself is a morally neutral goal. Most multinational or national companies never violate human rights, but out of the hundreds of thousands multinational corporations and their subsidiaries some of them might and most likely some will. The relation between corporations and human rights was not initially seen to be direct or even indirect, but in the age of globalisation the real impacts corporate action can have on human rights is evident. Multinational corporations can find themselves in a loophole of jurisdictions for companies to operate in, and accountability is not generated from international law either. Judicially, multinational corporations act under the obligation to conduct their operations in accordance with the domestic laws of each jurisdiction. Complexities emerge when transnational corporations operate in host states which are unwilling or unable to enforce human rights and fundamental rights. As corporations are not understood as subjects in international law, they cannot be bound by international regulation such as that on human rights. This dissertation seeks to comprehensively survey the evolution of mandatory human rights protection and promotion by corporations. In particular, the research concentrates on the forms and models of regulation and its validity, enforcement and overall acceptance. The hypothesis is to find whether mandatory regulation, which regulates the direct human rights obligations of multinational corporations, exists, and more importantly, if it does not, can such binding regulation evolve? More specifically, if such regulation is evolving, then how will it evolve and what specific obligations can it impose? The study is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the various theoretical problems surrounding mandatory business and human rights regulation. The second portion of the study will provide an extensive depiction of the current regulative sphere. This entails not only the international and domestic regulative sphere, but two case studies regarding business and human rights. The first case study focuses on conflict minerals and the second case study focuses on the effects of civil remedies. In the third part, the first and second part were reviewed to answer the overall hypothesis and ask whether companies actually are capable of having human rights obligations. The research concludes that the role of states continues to be at the centre of human rights protection and enforcement, not only vertically between state and individual, but also in horizontal relations. The research argues that international human rights and domestic regulative measures include an expectation of human rights due diligence towards companies and hence such an obligation may already exist as a responsibility. Further, the research addresses the implications for the future of business and human rights in relation to the evolution of binding human rights obligations regarding corporate conduct. The text illustrates how similar concepts and ideas of due diligence have spread between states through models of regulative cooperation, competition and transnational communication. By using the same theory of policy convergence, the research will discuss how regulation regarding mandatory due diligence requirements may spread from one country to another and slowly grow more regional and further on global.
  • Peterzens-Nysten, Anri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This research studies the legal protection of cultural property. It examines why cultural property needs protection and how it is protected by law. The research focuses on two issues. Firstly it looks into the way the movement of cultural property is regulated. Secondly it looks into the means that are used to secure the return of illegal cultural property to its country of origin. The theoretical part of the work examines where the presumed new branch of law called cultural heritage law, sits in the overall legal system. In recent years new regulation has been introduced to protect cultural property, as it has become apparent that pre-existing laws provided inadequate protection. The study suggests that the new laws that have been introduced to safeguard cultural property have been directed towards very specific legal problems relating to cultural property. The new law has created several independent legislative sub-areas under the branch of cultural heritage law. This work examines one of these legislative sub-areas in detail: the area that governs the movement and return of cultural property. The starting point for this research is that it is not possible to systematize these different legislative sub-areas with any existing legal concepts and principles. This is because, in addition to its normative material, each of the new legislative sub-areas also appears to be based upon distinct concepts and principles. In other words, each of these sub-areas has distinct legal identity in terms of legal norms, concepts and principles. In summary, careful analysis of the recently developed branch of law known as cultural heritage law reveals distinct sub-branches of law, each subject to its own general doctrines. The theoretical goal of this study has been to outline the general doctrines governing the legislative sub-area of movement and return of cultural property. The practical part of the work examines the question of the return of cultural property. First it looks at how the movement and the return of cultural property is regulated by law. Then it looks at the implementation of that law in practice, that is, the functionality of the recovery system. It is clear that both the regulation and its implementation are developing in a twofold way. The regulation is divided into hard and soft law, and soft law has quickly established its position alongside hard law. The implementation is likewise divided into hard and soft implementation. The unusual prominence of soft regulation and soft implementation may be considered a special feature of this sub-area of law.
  • Sjöberg, Lena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to explore the development of reproductive health issues in women with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Finland in recent decades, based on a large population-based cohort. The study cohort consists of 2327 women and two individually matched control persons without diabetes for each person in the cohort. The cohort is part of the DERI (Diabetes Epidemiology Research International) cohort that was established at the beginning of the 1980s and it consists of all persons who were diagnosed with T1D at the age of seventeen or under in 1965–1979. The control persons are age-, sex- and birth place-matched persons without diabetes. Three of the studies are register-based cohort studies that compare women with and without diabetes in regard to four topics: family size, rates of terminations of pregnancy and sterilisation, and parity-related mortality. Studies I and IV also include men, both from the DERI cohort (n = 2819) and from the control group. The fourth study was a questionnaire study on menopausal age and factors affecting it, involving part of the study cohort. The survey results regarding age at menopause of T1D patients were compared with general population data. The study women had fewer children than the controls without diabetes: the average number of children was lower in women with diabetes (1.1 [95% CI 1.03, 1.15]) than in women without diabetes (1.83 [95% CI 1.77, 1.87]), but in younger birth cohorts a significant trend was seen towards decreased differences between women with and without diabetes. There were significantly more terminations of pregnancy among women with diabetes (standardised incidence ratio [SIR] 1.67 [95% CI 1.51−1.86] compared with control women) and the indications for termination were different: maternal medical indications comprised 23.6% of terminations in the diabetes group and 0.3% in the women without diabetes. Sterilisations were more common (SIR 1.69 [95% CI 1.56−1.83]) in the diabetes group; 22.9% them were carried out for maternal medical indications; among control women 0.3%. The difference between women with and without type 1 diabetes regarding the frequency of sterilisation vanished around the year 2000. Age at menopause was associated with the grade of complications of diabetes: the age-related occurrence of menopause was higher in women with severe microvascular complications, i.e., proliferative retinopathy or end-stage renal disease. The mean age at menopause was not lower than in the general population. Mortality was lower in persons with children than in childless persons in our study, independent of sex and diabetes status, but the relationship between parity and mortality was different in men and women. The studies indicate that differences in reproductive issues between women with and without childhood-onset T1D have decreased over time. Compared with women without diabetes, parity has been lower and the frequencies of terminations of pregnancy and sterilisations have been higher in women with T1D than in the general population. The underlying reasons and mechanisms for the differences in parity-related mortality between women and men with T1D are not clear. If pregnancy has a protective effect in women with T1D, this could partly be due to the fact that women with diabetes learn to maintain good metabolic control during pregnancy and also keep up this after giving birth.Future studies should focus on factors affecting the fecundity and fertility of women with diabetes.
  • Niskakoski, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tiivistelmä lähetetään erikseen" tmv
  • Faisal, Imrul (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Mammalian males produce sperm throughout their entire reproductive life by a highly sophisticated developmental process called spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis includes three major phases. In the first phase, spermatogonia (including stem cells) undergo several rounds of cell division and increase their population, of which a subset is primed to differentiate into subsequent phases. In the second phase, spermatocytes undergo meiosis, leading to the formation of haploid spermatids. In the final phase, haploid spermatids differentiate into mature spermatozoa. In this dissertation, I explored genetic regulation during the first two major phases of germ cell development: stem cell maintenance and meiosis. To ensure uninterrupted spermatogenesis, the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) must maintain a proper balance between self-renewal and differentiation. More stem cell proliferation at the expense of differentiation impairs adequate sperm production, whereas excess differentiation is responsible for depletion of the stem cell reservoir. An imbalance between self-renewal versus differentiation of SSCs can lead to sterility. Little is known about the role of general transcription factors in the maintenance of SSCs. One main aim of my dissertation was to characterize the role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor 1 (USF1), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, in mammalian spermatogenesis. Using Usf1-/- mice, I found that USF1 is an essential protein for the maintenance of SSCs. Specifically, in the absence of USF1, SSCs undergo gradual depletion with age, and as a consequence, which results in impaired spermatogenesis and in the progressive decline in sperm production. My work also focused on genetic requirements of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in meiosis. Generation of at least one crossover site per homologous chromosome pair (homolog) is crucial for the fidelity of meiotic chromosome segregation. Non-exchanged homologs, which fail to make a crossover, are at risk for chromosomal missegregation. The SAC, one of the major cell cycle checkpoints, monitors proper chromosomal alignment and halts cell division at metaphase I upon presence of non-exchanged homolog(s). Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) is a major and critical SAC component. An altered MAD2 expression, either lower or overexpression, is responsible for chromosomal missegregation often leading to an altered number of chromosomes (i.e. aneuploidy) in the daughter cells. However, wild-type levels of this key SAC protein were reported to be dispensable for mammalian male meiosis. Using mouse models with different propensities to non-exchange homologs, my work further dissected the genetic requirements of MAD2 in spermatogenesis. Thanks to the use of these physiological models, we are able to conclude that MAD2 is a critical SAC modifier also in mammalian male meiosis.
  • Vanhatalo, Anni (2018)
    Plants synthesise thousands of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) as part of their secondary metabolism. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) particularly produces mono- and sesquiterpenes, which are mainly stored in oleoresin in resin ducts. In this study, the monoterpene emission rate from stems was found to increase as a function of increasing resin pressure, which was positively correlated with the air temperature and foliage transpiration rate. Monoterpene synthase activity describes the maximum monoterpene production potential. The seasonal cycle and needle age were observed to explain the majority of the variation in needle monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and monoterpene emissions from shoots. Variation in the monoterpene concentration between seasons, different needle age classes and different trees was observed to be minor. Monoterpene synthase activity was higher in <1-year-old needles compared to older ones. Within a single tree, the compound-specific composition of monoterpene synthase activities and monoterpene storages was not reflected in the composition of emissions. For example, the share of δ-3-carene was substantially higher in the emissions than in the storage pools and synthase activities. An automated enclosure measurement system including a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer was utilized to follow the VOC emissions from the woody compartments of trees over several years. This was the first study to quantify such emissions for an extended period. Scots pine stems were observed to emit monoterpenes and methanol into the ambient air. The fluxes displayed a seasonal cycle: methanol emissions were highest in the midst of the growing season, whereas monoterpene emissions peaked not only on the hottest summer days, but also in the spring when the photosynthetic capacity of trees recovered. The emissions of some monoterpenes exhibited distinct diurnal patterns in their enantiomeric compositions. The above-canopy air terpene concentrations reflected the emission rates from trees, the atmospheric reactivities of the compounds, the tree species composition of the measurement site and the abundances of different tree chemotypes.
  • Helle, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The present study analyses the contextual theology of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences (FABC). The FABC can validly be considered as the most authoritative representative of the Catholic Church in Asia since the time of the inception of the FABC, which took place after Pope Paul VI’s 1970 visit to Manila. The method of this study is systematic analysis and critical evaluation of the relevant FABC documents in order to locate the constitutive underpinnings of the theology of the FABC. The sources for this study consist of the most important documents produced by the FABC in the period from 1970 to 2012. The present study argues that the FABC’s contextual theology can best be understood as an interplay between the traditional sources of Catholic faith (Scripture and Tradition) their magisterial interpretation (with special reference to the documents of the Second Vatican Council) and Asian contextual realities (Asian religions, Asian cultures, and Asian socio-political realities, especially the poor). The importance of Vatican II is significant; the FABC could not have come into existence without the reforms and openness introduced by the Council. The FABC’s theological orientations can therefore be described as Asia’s continuing Vatican II. The approach of the FABC to theology is primarily inductive; this approach is seen when the FABC analyses the concepts of “being Asian” and “Asianness”. The FABC’s clearly expressed goal for the Church in Asia is “to become truly Asian in all things”. In pursuit of this goal, the Asian bishops especially employ the concept of Asianness. In using this broad term, at certain points the FABC can be viewed as representing an essentialist understanding of this concept. On the other hand, in choosing Asianness as an important concept and goal, the FABC belongs to a larger theological trend of emerging Asianness, which can be considered as one of the most significant theological trends today. In the thought of the FABC, one major component of Asianness is the concept of harmony. The FABC argues that harmony is a significant and inherently element in the process of becoming truly Asian. The importance of Asianness for the theology of the FABC is also shown in an analysis of the concept of truth in the FABC theology. The FABC strives for an Asian understanding of truth, which the FABC argues is universal, practical and non-exclusivist. In this discussion of the understanding of truth the Asian bishops introduce a “wayfaring” aspect into theology, which the bishops claim is a dimension which is significantly present in Asian theology. The concept of wayfaring theology implies a process during which the Church’s understanding of truth and faith will increase. In the opinion of the FABC, the “wayfaring theology” represents a genuine Catholic articulation of faith. This kind of articulation of faith and theology is both truly Asian and truly Catholic. The FABC also Asian contextual realities: the religions, cultures, and socio-political realities of Asia, especially the poor. The FABC welcomes all these realities as dialogue partners with the Church. In this dialogue, Asian contextual realities are accepted as theological sources (loci) in addition to the traditional sources of Scripture and Tradition. The dialogue with these contextual realities becomes a mutually enriching process in which both the Church and Asian contextual realities learn from each other and contribute to each other. Regarding the relationship with Asian religions, the FABC represents an understanding of that relationship which can be termed “dialogical fulfilment, in which the Church also can learn from other religions, and the adherents of religions are accepted as co-pilgrims on the way towards the Kingdom of God. In addition, even after the introduction of the Gospel the salvific function of these religions remains. In this understanding the FABC represents a different point of view than that of the Roman Magisterium. However, in the last analysis, an inclusivist undertone remains in the theology of religions of the FABC. The FABC’s understanding of Asian cultures is predominantly positive; at certain points the bishops even evince a kind of cultural romanticism. On the other hand, the bishops also provide critical means for the dialogue between the Gospel and cultures: this dialogue is intended to lead to inculturation. In order for inculturation to be successful, the process of inculturation needs the help of the Paschal Mystery, which means that both the Church and cultures need to be purified by the Gospel of Christ. When the Gospel meets a culture, something “new” is born out of the encounter, but the ”new” essentially grows out of both the Gospel and a culture. This “new” must be faithful to the genuine Catholic tradition and at the same time be relevant and capable of making the Gospel come alive in various Asian contexts. The third important contextual reality for the FABC are the poor of Asia, who are of indispensable help for the Church so that it can truly become an Asian Church. The Church must dialogue with the poor and give up its authoritarianism and also become the Church of the poor -- and even a poor Church. When developing its ecclesiology, the FABC argues that in order to become a truly Asian Catholic Church, the Church must adopt an Asian face of Jesus. Presenting Jesus in an Asian way implies using Asian cultural concepts, terms and symbols, and in a manner which resonates with the vision of life of the peoples of Asia. By this, the FABC strives to present a Jesus who is not a stranger to the Asian continent. An Asian Catholic Church will then do its mission in Asia to (ad) Asian peoples, among (inter) Asian peoples and with (cum) Asian peoples. The title of the present study, Towards a Truly Catholic and a Truly Asian Church : An Asian Wayfaring Theology of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences (FABC) 1970-2012, reflects the understanding of the Asian Catholic bishops that their theology is a new enterprise marked by a certain experimental character, a certain ambiguity, uncertainty and tenuousness. It is not yet a finished product; rather, it is a pilgrimage. Living and proclaiming the Gospel according to this paradigm, the Asian Church discovers its identity as a truly Catholic and a truly Asian Church.
  • Dutta, Pinky (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The trans-replication system of a virus deals with the idea where the viral RNA involved in the translation of replicase protein is separate from the one involved in the replication of the virus. This system has been successfully used to study virus replication complexes and numerous viral and host factors involved in the replication and infection process of Semliki Forest virus, Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus. We attempted to test for the feasibility of this system with Potato virus X (PVX), an alpha-like virus, in planta. A viral RNA template was designed to produce a non-functional replicase protein, with the coat protein sequence deleted to prevent formation of virions. All other RNA features of the template sequence had been left unaltered, possibly making it recognizable by the replicase. The replicase construct encodes for the replicase protein and its RNA lacks other virus-specific recognition sequences. Both of the constructs were delivered into the mesophyll cells of the Nicotiana benthamiana leaves via Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. Templates of various lengths, ranging from 2569 to 7562 nucleotides were tested. The longer templates did not replicate at 4 and 6 days post inoculation, when the replicase protein was provided in trans. Further optimization of the system with shorter templates and addition of helper component proteinase (HCPro), a potyviral silencing suppressor, led to effective trans-replication of the templates in plant cells. However, the replication sites were observed to be scattered across the leaf lamina suggesting that further optimization is required for increased efficiency of the trans-replication system. All in all, it has been established that PVX is capable of trans-replicating and the experimental freedom offered by this system can be utilized to delve deeper into understanding the replication mechanism of the virus.
  • Ristola, Erno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämä pro gradu –tutkimus käsittelee suomalaisia pienpanimoita ja niiden markkinointiviestintää Facebookissa. Tutkimuksen päämäärä on selvittää miten ja miksi suomalaiset pienpanimot viestivät tuotetietoa sisältävää Facebook-sisältöä kuluttajille. Tutkimuksella halutaan tuottaa lisätietoa vähemmän huomiota saaneesta yritysten tuottamasta sosiaalisen median sisällöstä, ja selvittää millaisena markkinointiviestintäympäristönä suomalaiset pienpanimot kokevat Facebookin. Lisäksi tutkitaan pienpanimoiden kokemuksia lainsäädännöstä alkoholijuomien markkinointiviestinnässä. Tutkimuksen taustateorian pohja rakentuu pikaiselle markkinoinnin ja markkinointiviestinnän kehityksen katsaukselle, jonka jälkeen fokus siirretään kuluttajan ostopäätösprosessiin ja tiedonhankintaan markkinointiviestinnän kontekstissa. Tämän jälkeen tutkitaan tuotetietoa itsenäisenä osanaan ja tuotetiedon merkitystä ostopäätösprosessissa. Lopuksi teoriaosuus käsittelee sosiaalista mediaa ja Facebook-sisältöjä WoM:n ja kuluttajien sitoutumisen kautta. Tutkimuksen empiirinen osio suoritettiin laadullisena tutkimuksena monitapaustutkimuksen keinoin. Tutkimuskohteina on neljä tapausta. Tutkimuksen pääaineisto kerättiin puolistrukturoituina teemahaastatteluina ja aineiston jalostamisessa tuloksiksi käytettiin logiikaltaan abduktiivista sisällönanalyysia, jonka perusteella aineisto luokiteltiin. Luokittelun pohjalta luotiin ristitaulukko, jonka avulla vertailtiin aineistoa keskenään ja tunnistettiin tapausten yhteneväisyyksiä ja eroja, sekä verrattiin löydöksiä taustateoriaan. Tutkimuksesta saadut tulokset viestivät, että suomalaiset pienpanimot eivät pääsääntöisesti pidä tuotetietosisältöä kovinkaan merkityksellisenä, vaikka tuotetiedosta viestitäänkin. Tuotetietoa viestitään usein suoraa reittiä kuluttajille ja faktapohjaisessa viestinnässä käytetään vähän erilaisia sisällöllisiä tai kuluttajan käyttäytymiseen perustuvia tehokeinoja. Sosiaalisen median markkinointiviestinnällä koettiin olevan mahdollista saavuttaa sitoutumisen kautta taloudellisia hyötyjä WoM:n myötä. Lainsäädäntöä noudatettiin kaikkien tapausten markkinointiviestinnässä, mutta suhtautumisessa lainsäädäntöön havaittiin eroja. Kaiken kaikkiaan tutkimuksen tulokset ovat sekä linjassa että ristiriitaiset aiemman teorian suhteen. Yleisesti ottaen tutkimus pääsi tavoitteisiinsa ja vastasi tutkimuskysymyksiin erinomaisesti samalla luoden syväluotaavaa ymmärrystä tutkittavaan aiheeseen.
  • Niemi, Pietari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Suomen metsätalous on jo pitkään ollut kestävällä tasolla, sillä metsien vuotuiset hakkuut ovat pienemmät kuin vuotuinen metsänkasvu. Tulevaisuudessa puun tarve kuitenkin tulee kasvamaan, mikä tulee lisäämään hakkuiden määrää. Hakkuiden määrän lisääntyessä hyvälaatuisen puun kysyntä kasvaa, jolloin Suomen metsätalouden yksi suurimmista ongelmista – metsänhoitorästit, nostaa päätään. Metsänhoitorästit ovat Suomessa yleisimpiä taimikoissa ja nuorissa kasvatusmetsissä, jolloin ne vaikuttavat pitkällä tähtäimellä hakattavan puun laatuun. Rästien määrä taimikoissa ja nuorissa kasvatusmetsissä on lähes kaksinkertaistunut viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana. Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö onkin käynnistänyt Kansallinen metsästrategia 2025 -hankkeen, jonka yhtenä tavoitteena on keksiä ratkaisu metsänhoitorästien vähentämiseksi. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää laserkeilatun metsävaratiedon hyödyntämisen vaikutuksia metsänhoidon toimenpiteiden toteutumiseen eri alueilla ja eri omistajaryhmissä. Aineistona käytettiin yhdeksän maakunnan alueelta vuosina 2009–2016 mitattuja Valtakunnan metsien inventointi (VMI) 11 ja 12 maastokoealoja, joista osa oli Suomen Metsäkeskuksen 2010–2012 laserkeilaamalla alueella ja osa ei. Laserkeilatun metsävaratiedon hyödyntämisen erojen tarkastelun avuksi luotiin neljä logistista regressiomallia mallintamaan taimikonhoito- ja ensiharvennusrästien syntymisen todennäköisyyttä: 1) eri alueilla, 2) eri omistajaryhmissä, sekä taimikonhoidon ja ensiharvennuksen toteutumisen todennäköisyyttä 3) eri omistajaryhmissä, ja 4) ilman erottelua omistajien suhteen. Tulosten perusteella laserkeilattu metsävaratieto laskee taimikonhoito ja ensiharvennusrästien syntymisen todennäköisyyttä alueellisesti taimikoissa keskimäärin 0,8 % ja nuorissa kasvatusmetsissä 1,2 %. Omistajaryhmien välillä laserkeilattu metsävaratieto laski taimikonhoito- ja ensiharvennusrästien syntymisen todennäköisyyttä molemmissa omistajaryhmissä. Yksityisomistuksessa olevissa taimikoissa keskimäärin 1,5 % ja muut-ryhmän omistamissa 1 %. Ensiharvennusrästien syntymisen todennäköisyyttä keilaus laski yksityismetsissä keskimäärin 2,4 % ja muut-ryhmän omistamissa metsissä 1,8 %. Taimikonhoitojen ja ensiharvennusten toteutumisen todennäköisyyteen laserkeilatulla metsävaratiedolla oli alentava vaikutus. Keilaus laski taimikonhoidon todennäköisyyttä yksityismailla 1,3 % ja muut-ryhmän omistamilla mailla 1,2 %. Ilman omistajaryhmien huomioimista keilatulla alueella oli 1,1 % pienempi todennäköisyys taimikonhoidolle. Vastaavat luvut ensiharvennukselle olivat yksityismailla 1,5 %, muut-ryhmän mailla 1,3 % ja ilman omistajaryhmiä 1,2 %. Vaikka tutkimuksen mukaan laserkeilattu metsävaratieto laski taimikonhoito- ja ensiharvennusrästien syntymisen todennäköisyyttä, niin johtopäätösten kanssa täytyy olla varovainen, sillä metsänhoidon aktiivisuuteen vaikuttaa myös muita tekijöitä kuten metsänomistajien tavoitteet, alueen metsänhoitoyhdistyksen toiminta ja puun hinta. Laserkeilatun metsävaratiedon laskevaa vaikutusta taimikonhoidon ja ensiharvennuksen toteutumisen todennäköisyyteen ei voida perustella tämän tutkimuksen aineiston avulla. Tutkimus osoitti, että laserkeilatulla metsävaratiedolla on mahdollisesti metsänhoitoa aktivoiva vaikutus, mutta aihe vaatii vielä lisätutkimuksia.
  • Friman, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ollut tutkia virtuaalitiimien johtamistapojen yhteyksiä työhyvinvoinnin tasoon. Tutkimuksessa keskityttiin tarkastelemaan erityisesti ihmisläheisen sekä asiakeskeisen johtamistavan yhdeyttä työhyvinvointiin. Toinen tutkimuksen tavoite oli selvittää, vaikuttaako tiimin virtuaalisuuden taso käytettyihin johtamistapoihin. Näitä teemoja ei ole tarkasteltu virtuaalitiimien näkökulmasta aikaisemmin. Tutkimus on toteutettu kvantitatiivisena tutkimuksena. Tutkimusotteena käytettiin kyselytutkimusta, johon vastasi 100 henkilöä. Näistä 90 henkilöä kuului tämän tutkimuksen kohderyhmään, joka oli samalla tutkimuksen lopullinen otos. Tutkimuskysymysten sekä aineiston laadun ja koon perusteella tutkimusmenetelmiksi valikoituivat frekvenssikuvaajat ja keskiluvt, korrelaatioanalyysi, regressioanalyysi sekä varianssianalyysi Tutkimuksen päätuloksena voidaan pitää sitä, että ihmisläheinen johtamistavan huomattiin olevan voimakkaasti yhteydessä työhyvinvoinnin tason kanssa. Myös se, että molemmat aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa virtuaalitiimeissä toimiviksi todetuista johtamistavoista olivat työhyvinvoinnin tason kanssa positiivisesti yhteydessä, oli merkittävä huomio. Johtamistavoilla pystyttiin havaitsevan olevan selvä yhteys työhyvinvoinnin tasoon. Toinen merkittävä tulos oli ihmisläheisen johtamistavan heikompi ilmeneminen tiimeissä, joiden virtuaalisuuden taso on korkea.
  • Yrttimaa, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Lahopuu ylläpitää metsäluonnon monimuotoisuutta, sillä se on välttämätön elinympäristö monille uhanalaisille eliölajeille. Tietoa lahopuun määrästä ja laadusta tarvitaan, jotta voidaan arvioida lahopuun vaikutusta metsäekosysteemin erilaisiin toimintoihin. Lahopuun kartoitus perustuu yhä maastoinventointiin, jossa perinteiset mittavälineet voitaisiin korvata maastolaserkeilauksella. Maastolaserkeilain tuottaa ympäristöstään tiheän pistepilven, jonka millimetritason tarkkuutta voidaan hyödyntää puu- ja koealatason mittauksissa. Maastolaserkeilaus on osoittautunut tehokkaaksi tiedonkeruumenetelmäksi elävän puuston koealamittaukseen, mutta sen soveltuvuutta lahopuun kartoitukseen ei ole vielä tutkittu. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena oli kehittää maastolaserkeilaukseen perustuva automaattinen menetelmä maalahopuun määrän ja laadun kartoitukseen. Maalahopuun kartoitusta varten kerättiin maastolaserkeilausaineisto 20 metsikkökoealalta (32 m x 32 m). Maastossa koealoilta kartoitettiin vähintään 5 cm järeät maalahopuurungot kartoitusmenetelmän kehitystä ja tarkkuuden arviointia varten. Maalahopuurungot tunnistettiin koealojen pistepilvistä automaattisesti runkojen geometristen muotojen perusteella sylinterisovitusta ja pintamallien segmentointia käyttäen. Rungot tunnistettiin myös pistepilven visuaaliseen tulkintaan perustuvalla menetelmällä, jotta voitiin tarkastella, miten hyvin maalahopuut on mahdollista kartoittaa koealaa kuvaavan tiheän pistepilven avulla. Pistepilvistä tunnistetuille rungoille määritettiin dimensiot, joiden perusteella laskettiin runkojen tilavuus- ja järeystunnukset. Runkojen ominaisuus- ja sijaintitietojen avulla muodostettiin kartta maalahopuun jakautumisesta koealalle, estimaatit maalahopuun määrää ja laatua koealatasolla kuvaaville tunnuksille sekä edelleen maalahopuun järeysjakauma koko tutkimusalueelle. Tulokset osoittivat, että maastolaserkeilaus soveltuu tiedonkeruumenetelmäksi maalahopuun kartoitukseen metsikkökoealoilta. Metsikkökoealaa kuvaavasta pistepilvestä voitiin tunnistaa automaattisesti 68 % maalahopuun tilavuudesta, jolloin maalahopuun kokonaistilavuus määritettiin 15,0 m3/ha tarkkuudella (RMSE). Pistepilven visuaalisella tulkinnalla kartoitusta voitiin edelleen tarkentaa: maalahopuun tilavuudesta tunnistettiin 83 %, ja kokonaistilavuusestimaatti määritettiin lähes harhattomasti 6,4 m3/ha tarkkuudella. Keskimäärin maalahopuurungon pituus aliarvioitiin ja järeys yliarvioitiin, koska runkoa ei pystytty tunnistamaan pistepilvestä koko pituudeltaan. Tulosten perusteella maastolaserkeilaukseen perustuva maalahopuun kartoitus on sitä luotettavampaa, mitä järeämmästä lahopuusta ollaan kiinnostuneita. Puuston ja aluskasvillisuuden tiheys aiheuttaa kuitenkin pistepilveen katvealueita, joilta runkoja ei voida tunnistaa. Siksi maastolaserkeilaukseen perustuvassa maalahopuun kartoituksessa on kiinnitettävä huomiota pistepilven laatuun.
  • Niskanen, Henrik Antti Mikael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Master’s thesis on constructing a taper curve, volume equation and merchantable volume equations for Sitka spruce in Ireland. The data was collected in Ireland. The taper curve is based on Laasasenaho’s polynomial function. The thesis also includes various economical calculations and models as well as their comparisons and effects on timber value.
  • Rautio, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Companies finance the equipment investments more often with financial products such as hire purchase and leasing. Simultaneously, the manufacturers as well as the retailers have implemented financial solutions under the own brand. The phenomenon is a market driver that affect the entire value chain. The purpose of the research was to conduct an in-depth review of the business by observing and understanding the motives, benefits and challenges behind private-label financial services. Moreover, the effects of the solutions on sales are assessed from the three key stakeholders’ perspective. The industrial focus is on the current market situation of agriculture and forestry machinery, which traditionally are pioneers in these solutions. Additionally, a country comparison is done on primary data level. The research method is qualitative, which is the most suitable approach for business-related topics with modest prior research. The source of the primary data was interviews with eight managers representing financiers, manufacturers and retailers within this business. A thematic analysis was utilized with five pre-selected themes that formed also the interview framework. According to the findings, the private-label financing has been successful for all involved stakeholders. From the vendor’s perspective, the private-label solutions are mainly used either to earn from the generated finance portfolio or as a manageable sales tool utilizing the brand value. For the financier, the services are rather profitable, since often, the manufacturers offer funds to lower the price of financing below competitors’ levels and additionally, the co-operation offers an exclusivity to the finance deals. In the future, these solutions seem to increase, because the financing is becoming a more important part of the sales. Along with the motives and benefits, the paper aimed to explore the co-operation and the effects on sales. The results indicate that the commitment of the partner is a focal part in the co-operation. The manufacturers and retailers are also demanding on the service level. For the financier, the risk-sharing, funds and exclusivity are key factors. The evidence given, the private-label financial solutions affect the direct sales and the sales work positively. Here, the standardized products and terms are important. Overall, the key stakeholders are in general rather satisfied with the solutions and all the respondents depicted interest to develop them further. However, a few challenges were extracted such as the unsophistication of the sales force, commitment of the partner and resources in terms of service and product level.
  • Leskelä, Mariia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Plasmin is an enzyme which is an important factor affecting both flavor and shelf life of UHT milk. Plasmin hydrolyzes mainly β, αs1- and αs2-caseins into γ-caseins and proteose peptones. During storage, proteolysis by plasmin causes bitterness and gelation. The objective of present study was to investigate time-temperature combinations for preheat treatment of UHT milk to decrease plasmin activity thus improving the shelf life and quality of existing product. In experimental research, 14 different UHT milk samples were manufactured with 7 different preheat processes and two different types of milk: prehydrolyzed (A) and posthydrolyzed (B). Samples were analyzed for their extent of proteolysis by two different methods: SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. SDS-PAGE gave qualitative information on the casein degradation and RP-HPLC gave quantitative information. Also, sensory analyses were made by eight trained employees at Arla Ltd (Sipoo, Finland). There were significant differences in casein degradation of samples at 2 and 4 months. All samples had some proteolysis after 4 months of storage. The largest amount of casein degradation was found in samples 5, 7 and 11, whereas the least proteolysis found in samples 1, 2, 13 and 14. Same results came from both SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. The sensory evaluation showed differences between the samples regarding bitterness at 2 and 3 months. The samples which were evaluated most bitter in sensory analysis, showed also most proteolysis in other analyses (samples 5, 7 and 11). The rest of the samples were quite equal in all evaluated features. The impact of hydrolysis point of lactose was unclear in this study. The aim of this study was accomplished since optimal processing conditions were found: 1, 2, 13 and 14 and the optimization of the process was possible based on the results from this study.