E-thesis

Recent Submissions

  • Weigel, Anna Lena (not decided yet, 2018)
    The starting point of this study is the thesis that the Internet has not only altered the way we live, communicate, and think, but that it (along with other new media) has also breathed new life into the contemporary book market. We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in writing and reading novels, which has been triggered by medialization and digitalization processes. More and more 21st-century writers invoke new media in their literary texts and explore the limits of the novel as a medium by using intermedial and transmedial storytelling techniques. Because the media landscape and the book market are changing rapidly, new literary experiments are cropping up nearly every day. One primary goal of this study was to give a broad and extensive overview of the manifold tendencies in contemporary writings that are influenced by the Internet and new media on a thematic, structural, and transmedial level. This study therefore contributes to the ongoing debates on intermediality studies, transmedia storytelling, and genre theory, filling the gap in the area of intermedial and transmedial relations between 21st-century novels and new media. To contextualize this interdisciplinary study with regard to contemporary scholarship, I have combined text-centered with transgeneric, transmedial, and cultural-oriented approaches from literary, cultural, and media studies, and have focused on three main concepts—namely, ‘intermediality’, ‘transmedia storytelling’, and ‘genre/generic change’. In the theoretical section, I develop intermedial, transmedial, and genre-based frameworks and propose analytical catego¬ries which not only help to systematize the manifold new tendencies in contemporary writings, but also serve as useful tools for the analysis of ‘fictions of the Internet’. In this study, I use the label ‘fictions of the Internet’ in three ways: first, to describe cultural, medial, and ideological fictions and myths surrounding the Internet that masquerade as truth while actually being false; second, to refer to literary fictions that thematize and critically reflect on such fictions of the Internet age; and finally, I use the term as a generic label to subsume all the innovative 21st-century novels that deal with the Internet and new media on a thematic, structural, and trans¬medial level. By looking at seven in-depth case studies and considering 150 primary works that fall under the category of ‘fictions of the Internet’, it becomes clear that intermedial and transmedial storytelling techniques are not isolated phenomena—rather, they form an integral part of contemporary fiction. Based on the findings in the analysis chapters, ‘fictions of the Internet’ have creatively responded to the changing media landscape with regard to their content, form, materiality, technological support, and interactive and participatory features. The generic field of ‘fictions of the Internet’ is still in the process of development and could potentially change with new technological advances and with each new literary experiment. Although the designation of new genres is a difficult endeavor, I suggest new generic terms for literary innovations that are related to the Internet and new media: ‘psychological Internet thriller’, ‘Facebook novel’, ‘Internet satire’, ‘multimedia Internet novel’, ‘Internet-enhanced detective, thriller, and mystery novel’. Admittedly, all these labels are preliminary, but there are encouraging signs that they might have the potential to achieve acceptance in literary scholarship and develop into full-fledged genres in the years to come.
  • Savolainen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämä tutkimus käsittelee kallon saumojen ennenaikaisen sulkeutumisen (kraniosynostoosi) leikkaushoitoa. Perinteiseen leikkausmetodiin avoimeen kallon uudelleen kokoamiseen (kranioplastia) liittyy useita haasteita: leikkauksessa syntyvät luupuutokset jäävät joskus luutumatta,kestävän luiden välisen liitoksen saavuttaminen on haastavaa, toimenpide on hyvin invasiivinen henkeä uhkaavine komplikaatioineen. Uuteen vähemmän invasiiviseen hoitomuotoon kallon venytykseen liittyy myös tällä hetkellä usein ongelmia kuten luun venyttimien hajoamista tai irtoamista. Tutkimuksessa etsittiin ratkaisuja näihin ongelmiin.18:sta kraniosynostoosipotilaalle avoimen kranioplastian aikana luupuutosten peitoksi oli laitettu demineralisoitu luulevy (DML). Nämä luupuutokset osoittivat parempaa luutumista (74%) kuin vastaavat tyhjät luupuutokset (54%) saman potilaan kallossa. Vertailu tehtiin viikko ja vuosi leikkauksen jälkeen otetuista tietokonetomografia kuvista. DML osoittautui turvalliseksi ja hyödylliseksi materiaaliksi luuputosten peitoksi. Aalto-yliopiston kanssa yhteistössä kehitettiin metodi, jotta kallon venytyshoidossa syntyvät voimatpystytään määrittämään. Mittauksissa todettiin venytystä vastustavan voiman kasvavan jyrkästi venytyksen aikana ja laskevan tämän jälkeen merkittävästi (keskimäärin 69.9%). Keskimääräinen venytyksen aloitusvoima oli 20.4 N ja lopetusvoima 57.6 N. Tutkimuksesta voidaan päätellä, että kallon venytyshoidon komplikaatioita voidaan vähentää jakamalla venytys useampiin lyhyempiin venytys kertoihin. Aalto-yliopiston kanssa yhteistyössä tehdyssä laboratoriokokeissa todettiin, ettei kahdella erilaisellabiohajoavalla luun kiinnitysmekanismilla, perinteisellä ruuvilla ja ultraäänellä aktivoitavalla pinnillä, ole kliinisti merkittävää kestävyys eroa. Toisessa samantyyppisessä laboratoriokokeessa testattiin kolmen erilaisen biohajoavan kiinnitysmekanismin soveltuvuutta kallon luun venyttimen kiinnittämiseen. Tutkimuksessa todettiin, että luun venytin voidaan kiinnittää kalloon 8 biohajovallaruuvilla tai 12:sta biohajoavalla lämmöllä aktivoitavalla pinnillä. Biohajoavalla kiinnityksellä voidaan mahdolisesti vähentää hoitoon liittyviä komplikaatioita ja vähentää luun venyttimen poistoleikkauksen laajuutta.
  • Viljanen, Martta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Adaptation to environmental light conditions at different time scales and biological levels was studied using the visual system of opossum shrimps (genus Mysis) as model. The focus of the study was on two aspects of visual adaptation: 1) mechanisms behind spectral tuning which enables effective photon catch in different light environments and 2) photo-induced damage and protective mechanisms in the eyes arising as a trade-off from tuning the visual system to be highly sensitive. For spectral adaptation studies mysids representing 12 species were collected from different water bodies around circumpolar and Caspian areas. Their opsin genes were sequenced and compared with phylogenetic relationships. Spectral sensitivities were determined for 15 populations representing four species by recording single-rhabdom absorption spectra with microspectrophotometer. Water transmission spectra were measured and the wavelength of maximal transmission of light and the attenuation coeffcient was determined to quantify the light conditions in the respective habitats. Animals originating from different environments were also bred in carefully controlled laboratory conditions to observe possible effects of ambient salinity on spectral sensitivity. The photoprotective mechanisms were studied by subjecting animals from populations with intrinsically different vulnerability to light-induced damage to an ultra-slow light acclimation procedure before exposing them to a bright light. The effects of this procedure were examined structurally by transmission electron microscopy and functionally by electroretinography. The equilibrium between rhodopsin and metarhodopsin was studied by microspectrophotometry. The acclimation protocol was conducted at different speeds to investigate the time scale of light acclimation. The studies of spectral tuning show that the spectral sensitivity of different Mysis populations generally correlates in an adaptive manner with the light conditions in their living environment. However, neither opsin gene sequence nor water light transmission could fully explain the observed differences in spectral sensitivities between study populations. Neither were there differences in chromophore use. The findings indicate that there are two opsin genes which are expressed in different proportions following a reaction norm triggered by an yet unidentified environmental factor. This hypothesis still requires more investigation. The study on light damage shows that very slow light acclimation can prevent structural and functional deterioration of photoreceptors caused by bright light exposure. The time scale of successful acclimation corresponds to the tempo of seasonal changes of light levels in the natural habitat. One key player in this phenomenon seems to be the amount of native visual pigment.
  • Niskanen, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Arctic-alpine regions are facing notable climatic changes. Improved understanding is needed of how these changes cascade into species distributions and what they might mean for the Arctic-alpine realm. These high-latitudes are expected to be susceptible to change. This vulnerability highlights the importance of identifying drivers of Arctic-alpine species and the landscape features that support their persistence. This thesis examines the determinants of present-day refugia; investigates drivers of plant richness and how projected hotspots coincide with conservation areas; forecasts refugia for species persistence and their connection to topo-geological features; and predicts forthcoming changes in species distributions and sensitivity, and whether these are affected by biogeographic history. Multiple statistical modelling approaches were combined with extensive data on species occurrences and environmental drivers. Models were built for refugia, vascular plant species, and various aspects of species richness. Changes in responses were projected across climate scenarios within Fennoscandia. The pronounced climate-dependency of high-latitude species and refugia suggests climate change to have substantial impact on the region’s flora. However, incorporation of topo-geological drivers improved models and forecasts of refugia. Refugia may be especially important for species persistence under severe climate change, particularly for rare or threatened species. Diversity hotspots exhibited low congruence due to variance in key drivers: total species richness prospers in warmer conditions; hotspots of range-restricted species occur near the cooler Northern Scandes. Protected areas in northern Fennoscandia offer limited coverage for these culminations of biodiversity. The climate change sensitivity of high-latitude flora depends not only on predicted warming, but on regional geography and species biogeographic history. Contrary to global estimates these findings do not predict poleward range center shifts. Northern Arctic species are more likely to experience southward contractions and become endangered through range loss. Northern Scandes are projected to be particularly susceptible. The results draw attention to high elevations such as the Southern Scandes for the persistence of cold-adapted flora, though suitable habitat may not persist for all species. Results demonstrate the potential significance – and some unexpected effects – of climate change in the Arctic-alpine realm. Findings of substantial, non-poleward range contractions and decreases in species richness may be counterbalanced by the refugial safeguarding of Arctic-alpine vegetation. Importantly, forecasts are affected by landscape-scale factors and biogeographical history, opening interesting avenues for future research. This study demonstrates the critical role of high-quality data sampled at resolutions reflecting significant environmental gradients for developing useful models of species distributions and richness. The methods used allowed refugia and diversity to be successfully modelled. This provides further insight into current and future conditions for high-latitude flora and highlights the importance of underlying ecological knowledge. From an applied point of view, results emphasize the significance topo-geologically defined areas for biodiversity. The potential locations and environmental parameters of refugia and ecosystem changes herein can inform conservation strategies within the Arctic-alpine realm and beyond.
  • Kylkilahti, Eliisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study approaches service consumption from the viewpoint of socio-cultural consumption studies and participates in the performance theoretical discussion on services. The main interest is to shed more light on the concepts of reflexive consumer agency and cultural positioning with the conceptual tools provided by performance theory and by narrative theory. The study asks, firstly, what sort of cultural meanings are given to the everyday service performances and what sort of resources are embedded in the subject positions of these performances, especially among young people; and, secondly, how the cultural, even routinized, service performances are constructed – changed or reproduced by these differently positioned service actors? The empirical data consists of 356 service stories of either ‘pleasant’ or ‘unpleasant’ service experiences written by Finnish consumers and service workers that accepted the invitation to share their service stories, that is, stories. Sub-samples were analyzed in the articles. The interpretive analyses are based on narrative approach: close reading, dramatism and positioning theory. The findings suggest that service performances are an arena for multiple, overlapping cultural performances. According to the cultural storylines, the young are often positioned as invisible actors or as potential troublemakers. Furthermore, the findings suggest that as the routine service scripts are disrupted and reflexive consumer agency is evoked – for example due to the above mentioned collisions of cultural storylines – service performances may become gameful. The study found that gameful service performances take shape in both co-play and counter-play. Moreover, the study detected tactics that consumers employ in order to (re-)construct the nature of the gameful service performances and, thus, to negotiate their positioning. These consumer tactics make use of situational offerings as the consumers draw cultural and social resources from their everyday life; they include masquerade, co-performance, team building and extension of the service scene. The study argues that disruptions in service scripts provide opportunities for cultural changes initiated by actors that have traditionally been considered powerless in the service context. Consumers should be acknowledged as active and creative developers of cultural scripts, yet, it must be understood that they do not have equal resources to introduce tactical openings. Thus, the study enhances understanding of consumer tactics; consumers can utilize socio-cultural resources in their political endeavors. In addition, the findings of this study support the theory of commercial enculturation; it is worthwhile to enhance the view on young people as active, knowing and competent actors that are not only the consumers of tomorrow, but the consumers of today, as well, as they participate in cultural meaning making ‘here and now’.
  • Zhao, Yajie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis explores the evolution of Chinese IP mechanisms during national development and transition to becoming a well-developed country. This subject is studied from the perspective of intellectual property (IP), with a special focus on the People’s Republic of China since 1949. Internationally, the Chinese State, as a late-developing country, has adopted various mechanisms to narrow its gap in income and in technological capability in relation to developed countries. Meanwhile, internally, China itself is going through a crucial stage of social transition, and switching its economic model from labour-intensive mode to high-tech and innovation-intensive mode. During China’s international ‘catch-up’ process, and its own social transition, the role of IP has constantly changed. This research on China’s IP covers a period of the late Qing Dynasty until early June 2017, especially focusing on the period after 1949 and the modern Chinese IP system since its Reform and Opening-up Policy in 1979. The reviewed literature covers: (1) Chinese IP-related legislation and policies; (2) the domestic and international academic IP studies; (3) research reports from international organizations; (4) central reports from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, other reports and speeches from the central government with a historical period start from 1933; and (5) IP-related annual reports and statistics from the State Intellectual Property Office and the various levels of the people’s court. This thesis combines the narrative approach of Chinese IP studies, law in context, and historical perspective, and specifically studies the question: ‘what is the IP system’s role in the catch-up process of China?’ The main research question is divided into sub questions: How does the development of the IP system and the national Science and Technology (S&T) integrate with each other (Chapter 2)? How is the IP system absorbed into Chinese society? The absorption of an IP system is explored via two aspects: one imperative aspect is the evolution of IP system from the perspective of enforcement (Chapter 3); and the other is how the IP system from the state level involved has impacted on the Chinese business players (Chapter 4). The manuscript concludes: Even though external pressures played an undeniable role during Chinese IP development, which can chase back to the 19th Century, China has been constantly advancing its IP system and its implementation mainly because of its internal and developmental needs since 1949 (Chapter 5). The outcome of this thesis summarises the three decades of Chinese modern IP development and its enforcement in the following way: an advanced legislation system that goes along with the international standards, an enforcement system with Chinese characteristics, and an administrative system for registration and examination focusing mainly on the domestic industries yet taking international practices as reference. China’s adjustments of the IP policies are ultimately determined by the overall objectives for catching up and building an innovative country. China updates its IP system strictly in line with its level of national S&T development. Based on the internal and international conditions, it is a selected development model from China’s side to emphasize IP reform and modernization.
  • Achuta, Venkat Swaroop (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of genetically acquired intellectual disability and is strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders. FXS is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 5000 males and 1 in 8000 females. It is primarily caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene leading to epigenetic silencing and loss of FMR1 protein (FMRP). Studies using Fmr1-knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice, modelling FXS, revealed that alterations in glutamatergic signaling play a central role in the aberrances of developmental processes in FXS brain. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that potentiates signaling mediated by glutamate receptors. This thesis explored the effects of tPA and glutamate receptor signaling during early differentiation of FXS neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The differentiation of human and mouse FXS NPCs was characterized using calcium imaging, live cell imaging and immunostaining. Expression of tPA was increased in NPCs and brain of Fmr1-KO mice. The increased tPA was involved in altered neuronal migration and activity-dependent changes in FMRP-deficient mouse NPCs. NPCs were functionally characterized based on their responses to activation of type 1 metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors. Increased differentiation of subpopulations of glutamate-responsive cells was observed in FXS NPCs. Treatment with 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), rescued abnormal differentiation of glutamate-responsive cells in both human and mouse FXS NPCs. In addition, MPEP treatment corrected morphological defects and migration of Fmr1-KO cells. Finally, an increased differentiation was evident for cells expressing calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in FXS NPCs and reduced GluA2 expression resulted in increased calcium permeability of AMPA receptors. In summary, this study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in early aberrant differentiation of FXS neuronal cells and will pave the way to develop new therapeutic approaches and biomarkers for FXS.
  • Pedak, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This research examines the role and tasks of the municipality that was hit by the crisis in connection to the school shootings in Jokela on 7.11.2007 and Kauhajoki on 23.9.2008. The research focuses specifically on internal crisis communication as a facilitator of multi-agency work.In the research, school shootings are seen as community crises, the consequences of which are strongly reflected on the local community. The leadership responsibility of community crises falls upon the local security authorities.The research material consists mainly of interviews with members of the crisis organization of the cities of Tuusula and Kauhajoki. The theoretical framework is composed of the theories of organizational communication and crisis study, particularly the notion of the various functions of communication in an organization, the complexity of a crisis and crisis resilience. As a result of the study, four theoretical concepts were obtained: the recurring complexity of crisis, the dominance of circumstances, the elements of strengthening of the crisis organization and the network of crisis organizations. Complexity recurred during school shootings, since in addition to the crisis, the ambiguity of management responsibility and division of labour produced surprises and demanded the organisation to adapt. Officials of community crisis were also members of the tragedy struck community, hence work and private loss were mixed. It was also discovered that pressure from the media influenced the schedule of the crisis organization work strongly.The lack of control related to complexity was largely due to the disappearance of predictability. The concatenation of communication issues caused accumulation of problems. In the absence of authoritative communication, the crisis organization was forced to begin operating based on unofficial information that was difficult to confirm. During burdensome tasks the crisis organization was supported by a strong leadership input combining symbolic and instrumental leadership as well as care of the members of the crisis organization. Working in pair provided the opportunity for professional peer support during crisis work. In the circumstances of surprise and disorder, the predictability of matters was enhanced by the application of known solutions in the new context. The evacuation center as well as support centers for the immediate and indirect victims of the crisis structured the entity of psychosocial support and services for traumatic situations. Additionally, places and occasions were indicated to support community grief and workspaces for media representatives. The network of crisis organizations was united by a governing body coordinating the support measures.
  • Bao, Yulong (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the thesis was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of protein oxidation on meat quality traits, such as texture, color and water-holding properties. To achieve this, meat was subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different oxygen concentrations and protein oxidation as well as meat quality traits (with a focus on texture and color) were measured. In addition, a model system of HClO-oxidized myofibrils was used to study the effect of protein oxidation on filament net charges, protein aggregation and their relation to water-holding. Generally, protein oxidation was found to increase significantly both with increasing oxygen concentrations in MAP and with increasing concentrations of the oxidant HClO. Lipid oxidation, measured as TBARS, was also greater in meat stored under higher oxygen atmosphere. Shear force of porcine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle increased with increasing oxygen concentrations demonstrating a meat toughening effect. The role of proteolysis and protein cross-linking on oxidation-induced toughening was investigated. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-linking was greater in 80% oxygen MAP than 0% and 20% oxygen, while desmin degradation was not affected by the oxygen concentrations in MAP, suggesting that oxidation-induced toughening was due to cross-linking of structural proteins rather than reduced proteolysis. Oxidation-induced toughening was also observed in minced beef as the hardness was generally greater in patties made from meat stored under 20-80% oxygen compared to 0% oxygen. The internal redness of cooked patties decreased with increasing cooking temperatures and increasing oxygen concentrations in MAP, and a relative low oxygen concentration of 20% was able to cause premature browning (e.g., the patties made from 20% oxygen packaged meat showed brown cooked appearance at 55 ºC while 0% oxygen led to pink-red color). In the model system, water-holding was generally improved by oxidation. Protein cross-linking was evidenced by increasing particle size with increasing concentrations of HClO. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) showed that the isoelectric point (pI) of solubilized myofibrillar proteins were generally lower following oxidation, indicating an increase of net negative charge. In the thesis, a hypothesis about oxidation-induced changes and their relation to water-holding is proposed: The oxidation-induced increase of net negative charges is due to loss of positively charged histidine residues through protein carbonylation, and water-holding is a balance between promoting factors (e.g., increased net charge) and inhibiting factors (e.g., cross-linking and aggregation).
  • Kauppi, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Introductions of non-native species are changing the composition of plant and animal communities worldwide. In order to assess their ecological and socio-economic impacts it is imperative to know their effects on the surrounding ecosystem. Basic knowledge of the non-native species’ biology, ecology and effects on ecosystem functions in their new environment is therefore needed but often lacking. Naturally low species richness and frequent disturbances make the Baltic Sea one of the most heavily invaded seas in the world. One of the most successful invaders has been the spionid polychaete genus Marenzelleria, three species of which now occur in the Baltic Sea, M. viridis, M. neglecta and M. arctia. Their differing burrowing and ventilation behavior compared to the native species suggest an impact on nutrient cycling. A combination of monitoring data, field surveys and laboratory experiments were used to investigate the ecosystem effects of Marenzelleria spp. The genus occurs in the entire Baltic Sea with highest densities in deeper (over 30 m) areas. M. arctia prefers deeper sites, all three species co-occur at muddy sites up to 20 m depth, and M. viridis and M. neglecta occur together and hybridize at sandy sites. Population dynamics and productivity of the three species differ spatially. Seasonal differences in biotic and abiotic factors lead to variation in the relative importance of Marenzelleria spp. on an important ecosystem function, nutrient cycling. The contribution of Marenzelleria spp. to nutrient cycling was highest during spring when food input to the benthos is high. M. arctia, M. neglecta and M. viridis had density-dependent effects on bioturbation metrics and solute fluxes, implying spatial and temporal variation in their impact on nutrient cycling following seasonal and spatial changes in their densities and biomass. The impact could be modified by the composition of the surrounding macrofauna community and the variation in abiotic factors. Combining the observational and experimental results implies a possible enhancement of phosphorus binding capacity by Marenzelleria spp. in deeper areas especially during summer when oxygen conditions deteriorate and densities increase, but an enhancement of phosphate effluxes in normoxic areas through enhanced remineralization of organic matter. Through density-dependent effects on bioirrigation and directly on ammonium fluxes, the genus also has an impact on nitrogen cycling. The results from this thesis imply spatial and seasonal differences in the impact of Marenzelleria spp. on nutrient cycling related to the environmental conditions and to the densities and biomasses of Marenzelleria spp. and other macrofauna. At disturbed sites Marenzelleria spp. could possibly enhance phosphorus burial and thus remove nutrients from primary production, whereas at undisturbed, normoxic sites they could enhance organic matter remineralization thus preventing deposition of large quantities of organic matter on the sea floor. The results also highlight the need to study the effects on non-native species in the natural environment incorporating the spatial and seasonal variability, and natural community composition in order to accurately estimate their contribution to ecosystem function.
  • Salava, Alexander (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The skin microbiome – Investigations on skin malignancies and preterm newborn skin Skin disorders have been associated with specific microbiome changes and raised an interest in developing new diagnostic methods and treatments. Our object was to investigate the microbiome in skin cancer (melanoma) and inflammatory skin disorders (parapsoriasis) and to explore the skin microbiome in very low birth weight infants in intensive care and possible association to neonatal sepsis. Microbiome samples were taken of 15 cutaneous melanomas and 17 benign melanocytic nevi, of 13 patients with parapsoriasis and 12 very low birth weight infants during treatment in intensive care. Sequencing was carried out on 454 GS-FLX Titanium and Illumina MiSeq platforms and the data was analyzed by bioinformatics. There were no significant differences in the microbiome of melanomas, melanocytic nevi and controls. Additionally, the microbiome showed no significant differences between parapsoriasis and the same patient’s healthy skin. We observed a high cutaneous microbial diversity in most of the infants at birth and there was a decrease in diversity during the first three weeks of life. There was no association between microbiome changes and neonatal sepsis. The results suggest that microbiome swab sampling may not be helpful in diagnostics of melanoma or parapsoriasis. Moreover, microbiome changes seem not to play a role in parapsoriasis. We could demonstrate that very low birth weight infants in intensive care have a high cutaneous microbial diversity during the first days of life regardless of the way of delivery, prematurity causes or perinatal infections. The diversity decreases during the first weeks of life possibly due to intensive care treatment and antibiotics. Neonatal sepsis is not linked to microbiome changes and it is likely that other factors play a role, e.g. skin injury by medical devices and concomitant infections.
  • Safi, Elnaz (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    With increasing demand for the energy in last decades, replacing scarce fossil fuels with new energy resources is inevitable. Currently, there is no clear alternative to the old and regular energy production methods for a clean future. However, nuclear fusion power may offer practical, power-plant-scale energy production with an unlimited fuel supply. A major challenge to overcome in the fusion reaction is to produce more energy than it consumes under extremely harsh operating conditions. In the last few decades, a wide range of studies have been carried out to investigate fusion performance and fusion reactor designs. ITER will be the first experimental tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactor to produce net energy, based on deuterium–tritium plasma. Due to the ITER design and operation requirements, extreme conditions are expected for plasma-facing components, such as very large thermal loads, temperature and particle fluxes. Therefore, selecting appropriate materials for different components of the device is critical and highly demanding. The main candidates for the first wall materials in future fusion reactor, ITER are tungsten for the divertor plates and beryllium for the main wall. Moreover, special low-activation ferritic steels are developed for being used as structural materials in blanket modules. In addition, various steels containing of iron and carbon are being considered for the main wall of the DEMO. The plasma cannot be confined infinitely and to control the contact between the escaped plasma and the wall, the area of interaction is restricted to divertor or limiter structures, leading to erosion of them. This phenomenon can become a show stopper by limiting the lifetime of wall materials. Therefore, characterizing the erosion behavior and morphology changes of these components and understanding the underlying mechanism are essential toward predicting and ultimately controlling the adverse effects of plasma surface interactions. Experiments in the different tokamaks and linear plasma devices, as well as those using ion beams are dedicated to study plasma surface interactions. However, experiments show a complex outcome and provide insufficient information to understand the underlying mechanism if the physics is poorly understood. In addition to experiments, computer simulations to study plasma surface interaction have also contributed to a better understanding of future fusion reactors and characterization of this mechanism in a wide range of time and length scales. In this dissertation, the plasma wall interactions such as erosion and ion reflection for the firstwall materials of future fusion reactors have been studied by different computational methods. The interactions of different materials with plasma and impurity particles were modelled. The work was mainly based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) algorithm to extend earlier results to a longer time and length scales and thereby enables direct comparison with performed experiments. First, deuterium irradiation on pure Fe, Fe with 1% C impurity and Fe 3 C, under different irradiation energies and substrate temperatures was modelled. Furthermore, a MD study to investigate the effect of plasma impurities D, Ar and Ne on the erosion and surface structure of W and Be was carried out for different fractions of Ar and Ne. Furthermore, the effect of reactor-relevant parameters on Be erosion behaviour and surface changes have been investigated using MD and subsequently a multi-scale approach (KMC- MD).
  • Palokangas, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Most athletes seem to recover gradually within the first 10 days after sports-related concussion (SRC), however a minority of athletes have persistent symptoms. To date, the recovery of Finnish athletes has not been researched. The aim of this study was to research the neuropsychological outcome and recovery trajectory after SRC on average a one-month period in Finnish youth ice hockey players. Both cognitive performance (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time) and self-reported symptoms were assessed. Individual clinical recovery was also monitored. It was hypothesized that cognitive performance would decrease (in one or more domains) and that the amount of self-reported symptoms would increase during the first few days after SRC. In addition, it was hypothesized that both cognitive performance and self-reported symptoms would return to baseline levels on average within 10 days after SRC. Methods. The sample of the study (N = 24) was collected in the research project “Heads in the Game” (Pää pelissä -projekti). It consisted of youth ice hockey players who got a SRC during game season 2015–2016 and were in a comprehensive follow-up team. All participants were Finnish, male and aged 14–20 (M = 16.75, SD = 1.59). The baseline performance of each player was assessed before game season. Performance after SRC was assessed in maximum four assessment points until players were clinically recovered. Assessment was done by ImPACT-test. Statistical analyses were performed by linear mixed models. Results and conclusions. Cognitive deficits were observed during the first few days after SRC, however deficits were significant only in reaction time. In addition, self-reported symptoms increased during the first few days after SRC, but this increase was not significant. On average cognitive performance and self-reported symptoms returned to at least baseline levels in 8 days (6–19 days) after SRC. These results suggest that particularly reaction time could be sensitive to SRC. The recovery of Finnish youth ice hockey players took place on average in the typical time course observed in previous studies, however there was variability within individuals.
  • Sten, Melissa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Fyysisen suorituskyvyn lasku voi johtua monesta eri syystä, joista yhtenä, joskin harvinaisempana, ovat perinnölliset lihassairaudet. Lihasaineenvaihdunnan häiriöissä lihasten aineenvaihduntareaktiot eivät toimi normaalisti, mikä voidaan havaita poikkeavina aineenvaihduntatuotteiden pitoisuuksina veressä. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten lihasaineenvaihdunnalle keskeiset markkerit laktaatti ja ammoniakki käyttäytyvät viidessä perinnöllisessä lihassairaudessa maksimaalisen rasituksen ja sen jälkeisen palautumisvaiheen aikana. Tuloksia verrattiin terveeseen verrokkiryhmään. Tutkielman aineistossa edustettuina olivat mitokondionaalisiin myopatioihin kuuluvat progressiivinen eksterni oftalmoplegia (PEO) ja mitokondriaalinen enkefalopatia (MELAS), lantio-hartia-dystrofioihin kuuluva anoktaminopatia (ANO5), sekä metabolisiin myopatioihin kuuluvat McArdlen tauti ja Taruin tauti. Kaikki koehenkilöt suorittivat maksimaalisen spiroergometriatutkimuksen, jonka aikana kerätyistä laskimoverinäytteistä analysoitiin muun muassa laktaatti- ja ammoniakkipitoisuuksia. Aikaisempia tutkimustuloksia tukien kaikilla potilasryhmillä havaittiin spiroergometriatutkimuksessa merkkejä alentuneesta suorituskyvystä. Merkittävin löydös oli kuitenkin se, että eri tautiryhmien laktaatti- ja ammoniakkiprofiilit poikkesivat selkeästi paitsi verrokkiryhmästä myös toisistaan. Erityisen selvästi erot näkyivät laktaatin ja ammoniakin suhteessa. Glykogeenimetabolian häiriöihin kuuluvissa McArdlen taudissa ja Taruin taudissa laktaatin ja ammoniakin suhde oli sekä rasituksessa että sen jälkeisessä palautumisvaiheessa selvästi matalampi kuin verrokeilla tai muilla potilasryhmillä. Mitokondrionaalisia myopatioita PEO:a ja MELAS:ia sairastavilla potilailla laktaatti-ammoniakkisuhde oli puolestaan kaikissa mittausvaiheissa verrokkeja korkeampi, kun taas ANO5-potilailla suhde pysyi koko ajan jotakuinkin verrokkien tasolla. Tulokset tukevat spiroergometriatutkimuksen sekä sen aikana määritettyjen laktaatti- ja ammoniakkipitoisuuksien käyttökelpoisuutta perinnöllisten lihassairauksien diagnostisena apuvälineenä. Erityisesti laktaatin ja ammoniakin suhde vaikuttaa käyttökelpoiselta. Sitä on kuitenkin tutkittu toistaiseksi vasta vähän, joten jatkotutkimuksia ja suurempia potilasaineistoja tarvitaan.
  • Haikarainen, Sanni-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Medical Sciences Laitos - Institution – Department Department of psychology and logopedics Tekijä - Författare - Author Sanni-Liisa Haikarainen Työn nimi - Arbetets titel Title Verbalizing the chances of nonverbal interaction using the intensive interaction outcomes table Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Logopedics Työn laji/ Ohjaaja - Arbetets art/Handledare – Level/Instructor Master’s Thesis/Kaisa Launonen Aika - Datum - Month and year 01/2018 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 43 pp. + 3 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate how the users of intensive interaction outcomes table estimate the feasibility of it. I was especially interested whether the outcomes table makes it easier to observe and verbalize the changes in a client’s way to use nonverbal interaction. I also wanted to know how the users of intensive interaction outcomes table evaluate the need of improving it. Methods: The data of this study were collected with a questionnaire. The participants were found from the intensive interaction group in Facebook and from the email list of Tikoteekki’s specialist Kaisa Martikainen. The answers were classified thematically with the help of graphic symbols. Results: According to the findings of this study it seems that the intensive interaction outcomes table supports professionals in recognising changes in their client’s ways to use nonverbal interaction. It also helps them in verbalizing the recongized changes. The participants would develop the form by shorting it. It would make it easier to be used in everyday work. Avainsanat - Nyckelord Keywords Intensive interaction, intensive interaction outcomes table, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual impairment, nonverbal interaction Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited Helsinki University Library – Helda / E-thesis (opinnäytteet) ethesis.helsinki.fi Muita tietoja - Övriga uppgifter - Additional information